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  • FRP

Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also fibre-reinforced polymer) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.

  • Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

  • Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)

(1) The approximate midpoint of the temperature range over which the glass transition takes place. (2) Amorphous regions of a thermoplastic soften at this temperature

  • Granulate

Plastic starting material for primary processing; particles are usually in the form of lentil-shaped cylinders

  • Graphite

A form of carbon. Structural graphite is used in composite structures due to its strength and stiffness

  • Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

  • Hardener

(1) A substance or mixture of substances added to plastic composition, or an adhesive to promote or control the curing reaction by taking part in it. The term is also used to designate a substance added to control the degree of hardness of the cured film. See also Catalyst. (2) Second chemical component required for activating the cross-linking reaction of prepolymers, in order to manufacture thermosets or elastomers

  • Hardness

The resistance of a plastics material to compression and indentation. Among the most important methods of testing this property are Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness and Shore hardness.

  • Heat Expansion

Increase in volume of a material as its temperature is increased, usually expressed as a fractional change in dimensions per unit temperature change. When the material is a solid, thermal expansion is usually described in terms of change in length, height, or thickness.

  • Heat Resistance

The property or ability of plastics and Elastomer to resist the deteriorating effects of elevated temperatures

  • Heat Stabilizers

These additives increase the ability of the material to withstand the negative effects of heat exposure. They are used to increase the overall service temperature of the material.

  • Heat-Distortion Point

The temperature at which a standard test bar (ASTM D648) deflects 0.010 in under a stated load of either 66 or 264 p.s.i.

  • HF Welding

High frequency (HF) welding is the joining of material by supplying HF energy in the form of an electromagnetic field (27.12 MHz) and pressure to the material surfaces to be joined. A generator produces the energy. The tool used to supply the energy is called an electrode. The electrical energy causes the molecules within the material to start moving, which generates heat that causes the material to soften and thereby fuse together. No outside heat is applied. It is instead generated within the material. After cooling the welded surface under maintained pressure, the material is fused and a weld has been created. The weld seam can be at least as strong as the surrounding material – or even stronger

  • Homopolymer

A polymer, consisting of (neglecting the ends, Branch junctions, and other minor irregularities) a single type of repeating unit.

  • Hot Gas Welding

A technique of joining thermoplastic materials (usually sheet) whereby the materials are softened by a jet of hot air from a welding torch, and joined together at the softened points. Generally a thin rod of the same material is used to fill and consolidate the gap.

  • Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

  • Hydrolysis

Chemical decomposition of a substance involving the addition of water.

  • Hygroscopic

Tending to absorb moisture.

  • Impact Modifiers

Are additive used to enhance the material's ability to withstand the force of impact.

  • Impact Resistance

Relative susceptibility of plastics to fracture by shock, eg, as indicated by the energy expended by a standard pendulum type impact machine in breaking a standard specimen in one blow.

  • Impact Strength

(1) The ability of a material to withstand shock loading. (2) The work done in fracturing, under shock loading, a specified test specimen in a specified manner.

  • Infra-Red

Part of the electromagnetic spectrum between the visible light range and the radar range. Radiant heat is in this range, and infra-red heaters are much used in sheet thermoforming.

  • Injection molding

A repetitive process in which plastic is melted and injected into a mold cavity where the article is cooled down. After cooling, the mold opens and the article is ejected.

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