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  • Ductility

The extent to which a solid material can be drawn into a thinner cross section.

  • Elasticity

The property of a material which allows it to recover its original size and shape immediately after removal of the force causing deformation

  • Elastomer

A material which at room temperature stretches under low stress to at least twice its length and snaps back to the original length upon release of stress. See also Rubber.

  • Electrochemical Potensials

Most metal corrosion occurs via electrochemical reactions at the interface between the metal and an electrolyte solution.

  • Electrolysis

passage of an electric current through a conducting solution or molten salt that is decomposed in the process. The electrolytic process requires that an electrolyte, an ionized solution or molten metallic salt, complete an electric circuit between two electrodes. When the electrodes are connected to a source of direct current one, called the cathode, becomes negatively (−) charged while the other, called the anode, becomes positively (+) charged. The positive ions in the electrolyte will move toward the cathode and the negatively charged ions toward the anode. This migration of ions through the electrolyte constitutes the electric current in that part of the circuit. The migration of electrons into the anode, through the wiring and an electric generator, and then back to the cathode constitutes the current in the external circuit.

  • Electro Static Discharge (ESD)

Is the release of static electricity when two objects come into contact. Familiar examples of ESD include the shock we receive when we walk across a carpet and touch a metal doorknob. While most ESD events are harmless, it can be an expensive problem in many industrial environments.

  • Electrical Conductive Plastic

The ability of plastics material to conduct an electrical current.

  • Electronic Treating

A method of oxidizing a film of polyethylene to render it printable by passing the film between the electrodes and subjecting it to a high voltage corona discharge.

  • Electroplating

The deposition of a layer of metal on a base of metal or conducting surface by electrolysis.

  • Elongation

(1) The change in the length of a body pulled in one direction by the application of a force (2) The fractional increase in length of a material stressed in tension.

  • Elongation, Break

The increase in distance between two gauge marks at the break point divided by the original distance between the marks. A zero value in the field indicates that it measured less than one.

  • Elongation, Yield

The increase in distance between two gauge marks at a yield point divided by the original distance between the marks. A zero value indicates that it measured less than one.

  • Epoxy

A chemical compound containing a resin with epoxide groups and a hardener, which forms a durable, solid thermoset material.

  • Extrusion

A manufacturing process in which raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing, weather stripping, window frames, adhesive tape and wire insulation.

  • Fatigue

The failure or decay of mechanical properties after repeated applications of stress

  • Fatigue Strength

It is the maximum cyclic stress a material can withstand for a given number of cycles before failure occurs; the residual strength after being subjected to fatigue.

  • FEP

Fluorinated ethylene propylene or FEP is a copolymer of hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene. FEP is very similar in composition to the fluoropolymers PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and PFA (perfluoroalkoxy polymer resin). FEP and PFA both share PTFE's useful properties of low friction and non-reactivity, but are more easily formable. Mechanically, FEP is slightly more flexible than PTFE. Perhaps surprisingly, it does not withstand repetitive folding as well as PTFE. It also features a poorer co-efficient of dynamic friction, is softer and has a slightly lower tensile strength than PTFE

  • Filler

A cheap, inert substance added to a plastic to make it less costly. Fillers may also improve physical properties, particularly hardness, stiffness, and impact strength. The particles are usually small, in contrast to those of reinforcements, but there is some overlap between the functions of the two.

  • Flame Retardant

It is ability of a material to extinguish flame once the source of heat is removed.

  • Flame Retardant Resin

A resin which is compounded with certain chemicals to reduce or eliminate its tendency to burn. For polyethylene and similar resins, chemicals such as antimony trioxide and chlorinated paraffins are useful.

  • Flammability

Measure of the extent to which a material will support combustion.

  • Flexural Modulus

This is a number associated with the stiffness of materials. It is used to calculate how far a bar will bend when a bending load is applied to it. Units are normally millions of pounds per square inch. (106 psi) - Giga Pascals (gPa). Higher numbers for materials mean that they are more resistant to deflection when equal thickness are being compared

  • Flexural Strength

The strength of a material in bending, expressed as the tensile stress of the outermost fibers of a bent test sample at the instant of failure. With plastics, this value is usually higher than the straight tensile strength.

  • Flexural Strength, Yield

The measure of resistance of the material to fracture during bending.

  • FM 4910

FM4910 is the fire retardant property standard established by Factory Mutual System, a worldwide industrial insurance organization, for materials used in clean room applications. Test criteria for the selection of materials for clean rooms are presented. The criteria deal with limiting fire propagation and limiting contamination of the clean room environment by smoke.

  • Foam

A lightweight, cellular plastic material containing gas-filled voids. Typical foams include urethane, PVC and polyester

  • Foam Process

The Structural Foam Process is a low pressure injection molding process where an inert gas is introduced into melted polymer for the purpose of reducing density and hence weight of the finished product. Structural foam molded products have cellular cores surrounded by rigid, integral skins. Foaming agent (NI, CO2 or CBA/ Chemical Blowing Agent) is introduced into the polymer melt stream, creating a homogenous mixture of Polymer and gas. The mixture is short-shot injected through nozzles into the mold in a volume that is less than the amount required to mold a solid part. Injection pressure and expansion of the polymer/gas mixture fills the mold.A porous skin is formed when the melt contacts the cold surface of the mold. The expanding polymer/gas mixture forms the cellular core.

  • Foaming Agents

Chemicals added to plastics and rubbers that generate inert gases on heating, causing the resin to assume a cellular structure.

  • Forming

The process whereby the current shape of a plastic is transformed to another desired configuration.

  • Food Safety

is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards.

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