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Glossary

  • Abrasive Wear

Wear caused by the continual contact, under pressure of hard particles in the resins against the barrel lining, screw and valve components. The abrasive particles may be fillers or reinforcements, such as fibreglass, calcium carbonate, powdered metals and others.

  • Abrasion Resistance

Resistance of a surface of being worn away by friction or rubbing process.

  • Acetal

An engineering thermoplastic introduced to industry in 1956 as a potential replacement for die-cast metals. Acetal resins are produced by the polymerization of purified formaldehyde [CH2O] into both homopolymer and copolymer types. Industrial end-users are very familiar with the acetals in the form of gears, bearings, bushings, cams, housings, conveyors and any number of moving parts in appliances, business machines, etc., Consumers may be more familiar with applications such as automotive door handles, seat belt components, plumbing fixtures, shaver cartridges, zippers and gas tank caps. Acetals are extremely rigid without being brittle. They have a high melting point, high strength, good frictional properties and resistance to fatigue.

  • Acid

1) chemically the state of a water solution containing a high concentration of hydrogen ions. 2) a reactive material with a low pH. Common oilfield mineral acids are HCl and HCl/HF.

  • Acid Gas

any produced gas, primarily H2S and CO2 that form an acid when produced in water.

  • Acrylics

Were introduced in 1936 in the form of hard, rigid and transparent materials. Acrylics were used in World War II as aircraft canopies. Other applications include: lighting diffusers; outdoor signs; automobile tail lights; washbasins and sinks; safety shields; furniture (e.g., tables); skylights, and large-area enclosures for shopping centers, swimming pools, restaurants, etc., and as room dividers. The outstanding resistance to long-term exposure to sunlight and weathering is one of the more important characteristics of acrylic. Also notable is the exceptional clarity and good light transmission (cast acrylic sheet transmits about 92% total light). Acrylics are a family of thermoplastic resins of acrylic esters [CH2CHCOOR] or methacrylic esters [CH2C(CH3)COOR]. The acrylates may be methyl, ethyl, butyl, or 2-ethylhexyl. Usual methacrylates are the methyl, ethyl, butyl, laural and stearyl.

  • Alkali

a strongly basic solution

  • Additive

A substance compounded into a resin to modify its characteristics (i.e. intestates, stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retardants, etc.).

  • Adhesive

A substance which applied as an intermediate is capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

  • Adhesion Promoter

A coating applied to a substrate, before it is coated with an adhesive to improve the adhesion of the plastic

  • Aging

The change of a material with time under defined environmental conditions, leading to improvement or deterioration of properties.

  • Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

Saturated, hydrocarbons having an open chain structure. Familiar examples: gasoline and propane.

  • Amorphous

Without (regular) form, glassy, noncrystalline, a condition of great disorder or absence of structure

  • Annealing

The process of heating a material just below its heat distortion point to relieve stresses.

  • Anisotropic

Not isotropic; having mechanical and/or physical properties which vary with direction relative to natural reference axes inherent in the material. It is also defined as the tendency of a material to exhibit different properties in response to stresses applied along axes in different directions.

  • Antistatic Agent

A chemical substance applied to the surface of a plastic article or incorporated in the plastic from which the article is made. The antistatic agent renders the surface of the plastic article less susceptible to the accumulation of electrostatic charges which attract and hold fine dirt or dust on the surface of the plastic article.

  • Antistatic Agents

Methods of minimising static electricity in plastics materials. Such agents are of two basic types: (1) metallic devices which come into contact with the plastics and conduct the static to earth. Such devices give complete neutralisation at the time, but because they do not modify the surface of the material it can become prone to further static during subsequent handling; (2) chemical additives which, mixed with the compound during processing, give a reasonable degree of protection to the finished products.

  • Antistatic Plastic

A plastic material that is an antistatic agent.

  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons

1)Hydrocarbons derived from or characterized by presence of unsaturated resonant ring structures. 2) Benzene and its derivatives.

  • Back-Up Ring (seals)

a ridged ring-like support next to a seal to provide higher pressure or temperature support.

  • Ball Indentation Hardness

Ball indentation hardness is determined using a defined ball, which is used to apply a defined load to a test specimen for a defined period of time. It is the quotient of the test force and the indentation surface created by the impact.

  • Ball Valve:

Ball valves perform a quarter turn on/off or modulating function. A flow-controlling ball located within the body of the valve contains a hole through its center along one axis, which connects the inlet and outlet ports of the body. The ball itself is held in place by, and rotates 90º within, PTFE seats. These provide permanent lubrication and keep the valve 'bubble-tight.' They are backed by elastomeric cushions, which provide pressure against the ball and at the same time compensate for wear. Elastomer O-rings are used for stem and carrier seals to prevent leakage to the atmosphere. In the open position, the flow is straight through with minimal pressure drop as long as the porting through the ball is the same size as the inside diameter of the pipe.

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